Solar Water Heater

A] Solar Power Can Be Converted Into

  • Radiant energy converted into heat energy – thermal
  • Radiant energy converted into light energy - Photovoltaic

B] Photo Thermal Applications
  • Solar water heating
  • Solar air heating for drying and space heating
  • Solar cooking
  • Solar Desalination
  • Solar Refrigeration,Cooling
  • Solar Power Generation

C] Solar Technology (Photothermal)
  • Flat Plate Collector (FPC) - Water heating,space heating
  • Evacuated tube collector (ETC)- Process Steam, Desalination ,Cooking
  • Parabolic concentrator - Process Heat, Power Generation
  • Central receiver - Power Generation

D] Solar Thermal Technology
  • The Sun’s heat is a form of energy.
  • Black copper tubes can trap heat to raise water temperatures to 60˚C or more.
  • Tubes have selective coating that ensure high efficiency of heat conversion.
  • Thermo-siphon action allows warm water to rise into tanks and replaced by cold water.

E] System Design
  • For Pune,India
    Amount of heat needed to heat 100 litres of water from 25 to 60 deg C = 100x(60-25)
    = 3500 Kcal
    Amount of radiation in Pune for Dec - 4.37 KWh
    At tilt (latitude + 15) deg -5.03KWh
    Efficiency of the collector at 60 deg C - 60 %
    Collector area needed = 3500/860*5.03*0.6
                                     = 1.35 sq.m
    One collector of 2 sq.m. will be needed to heat 100 litres from 25 to 60 deg C

F] Types of Solar hot water Systems
  • Thermosyphon
  • Normal
  • Pressurised
  • Heat exchanger
  • Forced Flow

G] Annual Fuel Savings Table [...for heating 125 ltr water to 60 deg C]
Fuel type Savings by Going Solar
Furnace oil175 kg
Kerosene164 kg
Firewood300 kg
LPG 120 kg
Charcoal 238 kg
Electricity1,500 units

Thermosyphon System

Thermosyphon Industrial system layout

Forced Circulation System

Forced Circulation System

Forced System layout

Solar Water Heater

Solar Water Heater



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